Cohort studies have an intuitive logic to them, but they can be very problematic when one is investigating outcomes that only occur in a small fraction of exposed and unexposed individuals. They can also be problematic when it is expensive or very difficult to obtain exposure information from a cohort. In these situations a case-control design offers an alternative that is much more efficient. The goal of a case-control study is the same as that of cohort studies, i.e., to estimate the magnitude of association between an exposure and an outcome. However, case-control studies employ a different sampling strategy that gives them greater efficiency.

Learning Objectives

After completing this module, the student will be able to: