(1)    NY Carlsberg Glyptotek. Man with a Crippled Leg | Glyptoteket [Internet]. Available from:

(2)    Baicus, Anda. The World of Virology. "The History of Polio Vaccination". Aug 2012; 1 (4): 108-114.

(3)    Library U of VHC at the CMHS. A Treatise on the Diseases of Children [Internet]. Available from:

(4)    Who Discovered Polio? [Internet]. Available from:

(5)    Kluger, Jeffery. Smithsonian Magazine. "Conquering Polio". Source:

(6)    National Public Radio. Wiping Out Polio: How The U.S. Snuffed Out A Killer : Shots - Health News : NPR [Internet]. 2012. Available from:

(7)    Advameg. Polio - body, last, viral, contagious, causes, What Is Polio? [Internet]. 2013. Available from:

(8)    Scientific American. Salk_headlines.jpg [Internet]. Available from:

(9)    Alfred R. Oct. 6, 1956: Sabin Polio Vaccine Ready to Test [Internet]. 2008. Available from:  

(10)Smithsonian National Museum of American History. NMAH | Polio [Internet]. Whatever Happened to Polio? [cited 2013 Nov 16]. Available from:

(11)Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J, eds. Chapter 17: Poliomyelitis. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 12th ed., second printing. Washington DC: Public Health Foundation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2012. p. 249–62.

(12)World Health Organization. WHO | Poliomyelitis [Internet]. Poliomyelitis. 2013 [cited 2013 Oct 16]. Available from:

(13)Bainbridge State College. Digestive Uvula.jpg [Internet]. 2013. Available from:

(14)WebMD. Hand to mouth.jpg [Internet]. Available from:

(15)Kew OM, Sutter RW, Nottay BK, McDonough MJ, Prevots DR, Quick L, et al. Prolonged Replication of a Type 1 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in an Immunodeficient Patient. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1998 Oct; 36(10):2893–9.

(16)National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health. Drawing of the digestive tract within an outline of the top half of a child's body [Internet]. Available from:

(17)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J, eds. 12th ed., second printing. Washington DC: Public Health Foundation, 2012.


(19)Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis, polio) [Internet]. New York State Department of Health. 2012 [cited 2013 Oct 18]. Source:

(20)Polio and Prevention [Internet]. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 2010 [cited 2013 Oct 16]. Available from:

(21)Unicef. Environmental and Health Sanitation : India [Internet]. Available from:

(22)Werner D. Polio. Disabled Village Children. 2nd ed., 5th printing. Palo Alto, CA: Hesperian Foundation; 1999. p. 59.

(23)Mayo Clinic. Polio: Symptoms - [Internet]. Polio. 2011 [cited 2013 Nov 16]. Available from:

(24)Eichner M, Dietz K. Eradication of Poliomyelitis: When Can One Be Sure That Polio Virus Transmission Has Been Terminated? American Journal of Epidemiology. 1996; 143(8):816–22.

(25)Section UNNS. UN News - India on track to become polio-free, says UN health agency [Internet]. UN News Service Section. 2012 [cited 2013 Nov 16]. Available from:

(26)At The Height Of A Polio Epidemic, Dr Photograph by Everett - At The Height Of A Polio Epidemic, Dr [Internet]. Fine Art America. [cited 2013 Nov 16]. Available from:

(27)Polio vaccines and polio immunization in the pre-eradication era: WHO position paper. World Health Organization: Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2010 Jun 4;85(23):213–28.

(28)Polio Vaccine [Internet]. Unicef - The Israeli Fund For Unicef. [cited 2013 Nov 16]. Available from:,1399-Polio-Vaccine.aspx

(29)Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses. CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2011 Jul 1;60(25):846–50.

(30)National Japanese American Museum. Children given polio vaccine at Maryknoll School, Los Angeles, California, May 19, 1955 [Internet]. Available from:

(31)Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) [Internet]. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative. 2010 [cited 2013 Oct 18]. Source:

(32)World Health Organization. WHO | What is vaccine-derived polio? [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Oct 16]. Available from:

(33)The Global Polio Eradication Initiative [Internet]. Polio and prevention - the virus. [cited Nov 16 2013] Available from

(34)Rotary International. The fight to end polio [Internet]. Available from: Info

(35)World Health Organization  [Internet]. Poliomyelitis fact sheet.  [updated 2013 Apr, cited Nov 16]. Available from

(36)Duintejer Tebbens, R.J., Pallansch, M.A., Cochi, S.L.m Wassilak, S.G.F., Linkins, J. Sutter, R.W., Aylward, R.B., Thompson, K.M. Economic analysis of the global polio eradication initiative. Vaccine. 2010 Dec; 29(2)334-343.

(37)World Health Organization. Polio eradication & endgame strategic plan 2013-2018.

(38)Rivers TM, Horsfall FL. Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man. J.B. Lippincott; 1959.

(39)The Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Vaccine Vial Monitors - helping save lives! [Internet]. Available from:

(40)Luo H-M, Zhang Y, Wang X-Q, Yu W-Z, Wen N, Yan D-M, et al. Identification and Control of a Poliomyelitis Outbreak in Xinjiang, China. N. Engl. J. Med. [Internet]. 2013 Nov 21 [cited 2013 Nov 21];369(21):1981–90. Available from:

(41)Aylward, B. Tangermann, R. The global polio eradication initiative: lessons learned and prospects for success.  Vaccine. 2011 Dec; 49(4)D80-D85.

(42)Henderson, D.A., Klepac, P. Lessons from the eradication of smallpox: an interview with D.A. Henderson. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 2013 June; 368(1623)

(43)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. Polio in Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia, and South Sudan.  [updated 2013 Oct 7, cited 2013 Nov 16]. Available from

(44)The Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Data and monitoring: Polio this week: Polio cases worldwide [Internet]. 2013. Available from:

(45)Grassly, N.C., Wanger, J., Durrani, S., Bahl, S., Deshpande, J., Sutter, R.W., Heymann, D.L., Aylward, R.B. Protective efficacy of a monovalent oral type 1 poliovirius vaccine:  a case control-study. Lancet. 2007 Apr; 369(9570)1356-1362.

(46)Chatterjee, S. Al Jazeera [Internet] Polio in Syria: putting children above politics. 2013 November 17 Available from

(47)Kerr, Y. The global polio eradication initiative stop transmission of polio (STOP) program --1999-2013. Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report. 21 June 2013. Available from:

(48)Motor Neuron Diseases Fact Sheet: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) [Internet]. [cited 2013 Dec 3]. Available from:

(49)Brain Stem Glioma - Childhood | Cancer.Net [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2013 Dec 3]. Available from:

(50)Dietz K. The estimation of the basic reproduction number for infectious diseases. Stat Methods Med Res. 1993;2(1):23–41.

(51)Kaiser G. The Adaptive Immune System: An Overview [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2013 Nov 24]. Available from:

(52)Janeway C. Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease. New York: Garland Pub.; 2001.

(53)The American Heritage Medical Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company; 2007.