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Tab Title: Cardiovascular
Over time there is progressive endothelial cell dysfunction leading to reduced capacity of blood vessels to relax and vasodilate. Arteries also lose their elasticity and become stiffer. The valves in the heart, which control the direction of blood flow, thicken and become stiffer, causing a decline in heart function and a reduction in cardiac output. This can lead to compensatory hypertrophy of the wall of the heart. Aging is also associated with increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and atherosclerosis.
Tab Title: Lungs
Respiratory function begins to decline after age 35. The mass and strength of intercostal (chest wall) muscles is reduced. The chest wall becomes stiffer (less compliant). The alveoli lose elasticity.
● Gas exchange surface lessens.
The changes of the respiratory system occur from a mixture of everyday wear and tear with the environment, genetics, and cellular changes due to time. The decline in chest wall compliance is due to changes in the muscles and bones of the spine and chest, such as the onset of osteoporosis. These changes can cause the chest wall to stiffen and modify its shape. The shape modification and stiffening reduces the ribcage's ability to expand and contract during breathing, and reduces the compliance and elasticity of the lungs. Gas exchange capability of the lungs is compromised in association with reduced pulmonary capillary volume and number. Amazingly, even with all of these changes, the body adapts and still continues to maintain effective ventilation.
The muscles used in the mechanical aspect of breathing
Chest was compliance is the ability of your chest wall (i.e. rib cage and its corresponding muscles) to successfully move as your lunges expand and contract.
Pertains to any form of lung tissue including alveoli, interstitium, blood vessels, bronchi, bronchioles but is often solely referring to alveolar tissue.
Tab Title: Kidneys and Bladder
With aging, the excretory function of the kidney declines, and many elderly people report changes in bladder function due to diminished strength of bladder contraction. Enlargement of the prostate gland in men contributes to urinary difficulties. Men and women report voiding problems and incontinence, and there is increased risk of cancers of the genito-urinary system.
Tab Title: Skin
Like other tissues, skin loses strength and vitality during aging, but these normal age-related changes can clearly be accelerated by factors such as malnutrition, excess exposure to ultraviolet light, smoking, alcohol abuse, exposure to toxic chemicals, and other adverse environmental exposures. Skin is continually exposed to the environment, and changes in skin features are most visible others. The obvious signs of aging skin include leathery skin, wrinkles, dryness, and atrophy.
Tab Title: Gastrointestinal
The stomach undergoes atrophic changes which reduce secretion of acid and intrinsic factor these changes can reduce bioavailability of calcium, vitamin B-12, and ferric iron. Blood flow to the liver and liver mass decrease significantly with age. Aging is associated with reduced lactase activity in the intestine, causing an increased prevalence of lactose intolerance. Motility of the large intestine is reduced, leading to constipation in many elderly persons.
Tab Title: Musculoskeletal
Aging is associated with important declines in bone mass, muscle mass, and muscle strength. As a result, bone fractures increase with each decade after the age of 55. Women are at an especially increased risk for fractures and osteoporosis, because their bone loss accelerates after menopause.
There is a decrease in number and size of muscle cells after age 25. Up to 60% of muscle mass is lost by age 80 years old. Decreased muscle mass and strength limits mobility and increases the risk of falls in the elderly.
Tab Title: Endocrine
Testosterone declines in men, and estrogen declines in women, leading to decreases in muscle mass and an increase in body fat. The reproductive tract atrophies.