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Text: Degrees of freedom can be described as the number of scores that are free to vary. For example, suppose you tossed three dice. The total score adds up to 12. If you rolled a 3 on the first die and a 5 on the second, then you know that the third die must be a 4 (otherwise, the total would not add up to 12). In this example, 2 die are free to vary while the third is not. Therefore, there are 2 degrees of freedom.

In many situations, the degrees of freedom are equal to the number of observations minus one. Thus, if the sample size were 20, there would be 20 observations the the degrees of freedom would be 20 minus 1 or 19